Christogenea Europe: The Phoenicians

cornish celtic cross with christ risen and crucified against dramatic sky

Christ as a boy in Cornwall, wearing a Phoenician tunic.


With William Finck and Sven Longshanks

By William Finck:

See the related material at Christogenea found under the title Identifying the Phoenicians.

From Herodotus, The Histories, 3.115:

“Of the extreme tracts of Europe towards the west I cannot speak with any certainty; for I do not allow that there is any river, to which the barbarians give the name of Eridanus, emptying itself into the northern sea, whence (as the tale goes) amber is procured; nor do I know of any islands called the Cassiterides (Tin Islands), whence the tin comes which we use. For in the first place the name Eridanus is manifestly not a barbarian word at all, but a Greek name, invented by some poet or other; and secondly, though I have taken vast pains, I have never been able to get an assurance from an eye-witness that there is any sea on the further side of Europe. Nevertheless, tin and amber do certainly come to us from the ends of the earth.”

We are going to offer George Rawlinson’s comments upon this passage, after we read a paragraph from Strabo.

From Strabo’s Geography, 3.5.11:

The Cassiterides are ten in number, and lie near each other in the ocean towards the north from the haven of the Artabri. [According to Strabo, the Artabri (or Arrotrebae) were an ancient Gallaecian Celtic tribe, living in the extreme north-west of modern Galicia, at the far northwest corner of Iberia] One of them is desert, but the others are inhabited by men in black cloaks, clad in tunics reaching to the feet, girt about the breast, and walking with staves, thus resembling the Furies we see in tragic representations. They subsist by their cattle, leading for the most part a wandering life. Of the metals they have tin and lead; which with skins they barter with the merchants for earthenware, salt, and brazen vessels. Formerly the Phœnicians alone carried on this traffic from Gades, concealing the passage from every one; and when the Romans followed a certain ship-master, that they also might find the market, the shipmaster of jealousy purposely ran his vessel upon a shoal, leading on those who followed him into the same destructive disaster; he himself escaped by means of a fragment of the ship, and received from the state the value of the cargo he had lost. The Romans nevertheless by frequent efforts discovered the passage, and as soon as Publius Crassus, passing over to them, perceived that the metals were dug out at a little depth, and that the men were peaceably disposed, he declared it to those who already wished to traffic in this sea for profit, although the passage was longer than that to Britain. Thus far concerning Iberia and the adjacent islands.

Publius Crasus lived during the times of the Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage, which consisted of three great wars fought from 246 down to 188 BC. According to Livy, the Romans were not really sailors at all, and had no military navy, before this time. It was out of their necessity to wage the wars that through much trial and error they developed a navy and the skills required to fight with the Phoenicians at sea.

Many commentators and historians simply take it for granted that the Greek name Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, applied to the islands which are now known as the Scilly Islands. However the Scilly Islands are not ten in number, but 27, including hundreds of rocks and small islets. Furthermore, the route from the Artabri to the Scilly Islands is much shorter than the route to Britain, and certainly not longer. Therefore I have always rejected the notion that the Cassiterides are the Scilly Islands, and do not even mention them in my essay on the Phoenicians, although I have discussed them elsewhere. I cannot prove it, but I do believe, that the Scilly Islands are the place where this Phoenician sea captain described by Strabo ran his boat onto the rocks, rather than circumnavigating them to reach some point in Wales north of them, and around the northern side of the peninsula called Cornwall today. The Cassiterides, with absolute certainty, are the promontories and islands of Wales and especially of Cornwall.

Read More


a clach an trushal (1)

Clach an Trushel Menhir, Scotland.

The Megalith Builders

Who were the Megalith builders in Britain, and what purpose did their stone structures serve? Although the common belief is that they were Pagans, there is a wealth of evidence to show that they were the Hebrews and the Sethites of the Bible, and that Druidry was descended from Patriarchal practices.

There are five main types of these stone structures that are found all over Britain:

Menhirs – Single upright stones
Cairns – Piles of rocks, usually in a cone shape
Dolmens – A stone slab on three or more uprights
Cromlechs – A circle of stones sometimes enclosing dolmens or barrows (tombs)
Tumuli – Mounds of earth and stones covering a burial chamber

These types of stone monuments do not just appear in Britain, but are found all over Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, marking out the routes that the Hebrews and Sethites took on their various dispersions, as they expanded across the earth.

a callanish

Callanish Cromlech in the shape of a cross, Scotland.

The Bible makes clear reference to these structures in many places:

Genesis ch 28 v 18
And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. (Menhir)

Genesis ch 28 v 22
And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God’s house: and of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee. (Menhir)

Genesis ch 31 v 45
And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. (Menhir)

Genesis ch 31 v 46
And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap: and they did eat there upon the heap. (Cairn)

Genesis ch 35 v 7
And he built there an altar, and called the place Elbethel: because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother. (Dolmen)

Genesis ch 35 v 14
And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon. (Menhir)

Exodus ch 24 v 4
And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. (Cromlech)

Exodus ch 20 v 25
And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. (Dolmen)

Deuteronomy ch 27 v 1 – 5
1 And Moses with the elders of Israel commanded the people, saying, Keep all the commandments which I command you this day.

2 And it shall be on the day when ye shall pass over Jordan unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaister them with plaister:

3 And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over, that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that floweth with milk and honey; as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee.

4 Therefore it shall be when ye be gone over Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaister them with plaister.

5And there shalt thou build an altar unto the LORD thy God, an altar of stones: thou shalt not lift up any iron tool upon them. (Menhir, Dolmen, Cromlech)

1 Samuel ch 7 v 12
Then Samuel took a stone, and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name of it Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto hath the LORD helped us. (Menhir)

2 Samuel ch 18 v 17
And they took Absalom, and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and laid a very great heap of stones upon him: and all Israel fled every one to his tent. (Tumulus)

2 Samuel ch 18 v 18
Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared up for himself a pillar, which is in the king’s dale: for he said, I have no son to keep my name in remembrance: and he called the pillar after his own name: and it is called unto this day, Absalom’s place. (Menhir)

Jeremiah ch 31 v 21
Set thee up waymarks, make thee high heaps: set thine heart toward the highway, even the way which thou wentest: turn again, O virgin of Israel, turn again to these thy cities. (Cairn, Menhir)

Proverbs ch 22 v 28
Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set. (Boundary stones are often said to bring a curse on anyone who moves them)

a jacobs pillar

Jacob’s pillar. Whoever painted this has obviously never seen the colossal size of the Hebrew standing stones.

From these verses and many more, it can be seen that the tradition of erecting standing stones as monuments to people and events, had a long history with the Hebrew peoples. Even today we still have standing stones named after our Kings and ancient gods, carrying on the same custom as referred to above.

The last instruction there given by Jeremiah, was to the tribes of Israel when they were in captivity in 700BC, much later than the age in which the first stone monuments were created in Britain. He seems to be telling them to go in the direction of the previous dispersions, that left at the time of Moses and before the flood, towards Europe and India where settlements had already been established.

Conventional history tells us that the stones were put up by the Phoenicians, which is partially true as the Phoenician colonisers were Hebrew, In fact the name ‘Eber’ which is where we get ‘Hebrew’ from, means ‘coloniser’ in the Hebrew-Phoenician language. From the time of Abraham in 2000BC to Solomon, the Hebrew-Phoenicians dispersed themselves among the native inhabitants of the lands they colonised, absorbing some of their Pagan beliefs and producing the syncretistic cultures we associate with them in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. This is why we see Yahweh’s name mixed in amongst others such as Baal, Ishtar and Tammuz. Those that remained in Phoenicia helped to establish Solomon’s mighty empire around 1000BC.

a south koreanb dolmen

An Aryan dolmen in South Korea, exactly the same as the ones in Britain.

Aryan Hebrew Phoenicians

They built cities and industrial centres wherever they went, transforming wilderness into farmland and establishing trade routes from Britain in the west, to India and China in the east. There was a great exchange of science and technology between Egypt, Crete and Sumer, which spread along these highways into Europe. They were excellent craftsmen and metalworkers as well as traders, and we find evidence of this in the intricate artefacts of metal, glass, weapons and jewellery in the Cairns that they left behind. Tin from the mines of Cornwall, an area with a huge concentration of megaliths, was used as far afield as India.

The Phoenician colonists were the people behind the neolithic culture, and they also brought with them the social structures that grew into our modern systems of law and commerce. There are hundreds of Phoenician coins and inscriptions that have been found around Britain and elsewhere, that indicate that the early Britons were the same people as the Hebrew-Phoenicians.

The megalithic structures in Britain all appear to have been built using the same unit of measurement, termed ‘the Megalithic yard’ by Professor Alexander Thom, who surveyed over 300 sites researching it. The exception to this universal system of measurement is Stonehenge itself, which was built using ‘the Royal cubit’, the unit of measurement used for building the great pyramid in Egypt. This implies at the very least, an intimate relationship between the builders of Stonehenge and of the Pyramid, as well as contact and understanding between Sumer and India, since each place used the ‘megalithic yard’ for construction purposes. Thom also confirmed the complicated astronomical alignments that many of the stone structures have.

a stonehenge

Stonehenge, an ancient observatory built for studying alignments of the sun, moon and stars.

Ancient Astronomers

Stonehenge itself can be used to tell the solstice and the equinox exactly, along with the phases of the moon if it was obscured, letting the operators of it know when the correct time to sow seed was. The Aryans are the finest farmers and explorers on the planet, and it was this knowledge of the stars to navigate and tell the time of year by, that facilitated that reputation.

Persian, Arabian and Hebrew historical traditions credit Adam, Seth and Enoch with the first understanding of the heavens, and the established date for Egyptian astronomy appears to be around 5,400BC, a date roughly corresponding to the time of Adam. According to Flavius Josephus 94AD, ‘Enoch was the first of the Sethites to learn the secrets of the stars’, and we read in the Apocryphal book of Jubilees ch 4 v 17 that ‘he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom, and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months’. It would have been with technology like Stonehenge, that he was able to do this. In fact the book of Enoch itself, gives detailed descriptions of the courses of the luminaries, and from the measurements of day length given for the specific times of year, it can be calculated that he had to have been in North West Europe in order to make his observations, which is right where Stonehenge and the majority of the worlds ancient star calendars happen to be found.

Similar alignments are found between the stone structures of Britain and Europe, and those in the other places the Aryan Hebrews colonised. The stone rows of Carnac in Brittany, have their mirror image in the Do-ring monument in Tibet. Both have alignments drawn from east to west, with a cromlech at the western end. Avebury, which is the largest stone circle in Britain, has its mirror image in Darab, Persia, which is also aligned east to west. Sir Henry Morton Stanley, famous British explorer was struck by the similarity between a Cromlech on mount Gerizim in Palestine, and the stone circles of Britain. He claims it to be the oldest sanctuary in Palestine, and states that it is nearly identical to the Druidic circles of Britain.

a persian circle

Aryan stone circle in Darab, Persia.

Druidic Beliefs and Hebrew Doctrines

There isn’t much recorded of Druidry, the original religion of the ancient Britons, as they learnt everything orally and left little writing of their own. The later Druids that Julius Caesar wrote about were not responsible for the construction of the megaliths, but they did still retain aspects of the builders original system of belief in their own, as can be seen by the relative ease with which it evolved into Christianity.

Taliesin, a Welsh Bard of the sixth century, wrote of the relationship between the old faith of Britain and the new: ‘Christ, the Word from the beginning, was in the beginning our teacher, and we never lost his teachings. Christianity was a new thing in Asia, but there never was a time when the Druids of Britain held not to it’s doctrines’.

The educational system of the Druids can be traced to around 1800BC when Hu Gadarn Hyscion (Isaacson) Hu the Mighty arrived in Britain, with a party of colonisers from Asia Minor. This is written of in the Welsh Triad no 4: ‘The first of the three chieftains who established a colony was Hu, the Mighty, who came with the original settlers. They came over the hazey sea from the summer country, which is now called Defebani, that is where Constinoblys now stands’.

a druid

Stukely’s engraving of a Druid.

The antiquarian William Stukely also confirms that the original Druidism was introduced into Britain around the period of Abraham. He pronounces it undoubtedly derived from the pure, undefiled religion of the Patriarchs. The reason for his deduction, was the family centred form of worship, where the head of the family acted as priest whilst performing the sacrifice. This goes back from before Abraham all the way to Adam, where the first born from Seth onwards became the priest of the family.

There are many other parallels between Druidism and the religion of the patriarchs. Both revered oak trees, with Abraham erecting a dolmen underneath one where he met three angels, as well as Jacob hiding idols within one, which shows that they were held to be sacred and untouchable. Genesis ch 35 v 4. The Druidic law of not using metal tools to shape their altars, is the same as the instruction given by God in the Old Testament. Sometimes the Druids would anoint these stones with rose oil, in the same way that Jacob did, with the first stone monument on record. The Druids also sacrificed animals for the expiation of sin and held to the doctrine of the eternal soul, which according to Pomponius Mela 41AD, was the source of the Britons bravery in battle: ‘One of the precepts they teach – obviously to make them better for war – has leaked into common knowledge, namely that their souls are eternal and that there is a second life for the dead’.

The Supreme God of all, was known as ‘Hesus’ or ‘Yesu’ to the Druids, and they had the same expectation of a saviour as their brothers in the Middle East. Both religions made the priesthood exempt from taxation and military service (just like the Brahmins in Aryan India) and both taught similar accounts of creation. Although the Druids prepared the way for Christianity in Britain, with many of them becoming priests in the new order, not all of them converted, and Druidry continued for a few centuries after the advent of Christianity.

a Avebury

The Avebury megaliths, England.

Christian Reverence for Ancestral Holy Places

The reverence for the Druidic holy sites and temples, was respected by the Christian Church, possibly because they knew who had originally chosen the spots and erected the stones. They specifically did not destroy these sites, instead choosing to redirect the worship held at them back towards the one true God of our ancestors. Observing nature in beautiful places that our forefathers sanctified, has always helped us to become closer to God. The mistake that the later Druids made was to see nature itself as God, and to split him up into various separate persons in their own right, when really they were just facets or faces of God, appearing as archetypes in heroic men. They also fell prey to the fallen angels deified by the mingled Hamitic tribes, who had been permitted to encourage men to worship them, to weed out the weak of faith. As the third wave of Adamites came into Europe from the Levant, they brought with them the Baal worship of the Canaanites that they had picked up, and this corrupted the Druid religion and people, in the same way that the Etruscan gods had corrupted the Roman peoples worship.

From all this, it can be seen that the first monuments to be erected were by the Sethites, then these were added to later by the descendants of Eber, and then later still by the descendants of Jacob-Israel. They built both the Great Pyramid of Egypt and Stonehenge, and through the ages continued to migrate into Europe, bringing with them their knowledge of the stars, and how to utilise it with the aid of their stone structures. They also carried with them their religion, their law, and their science. As time went on, their beliefs became adulterated with corruptions introduced by the more recent colonists. This explains how Canaanite gods like Bel and Eostre were brought to these shores, and it also explains how Christianity became so quickly accepted by the British people. It was nothing more than a return to their original customs and beliefs, and the fulfilment of the Druidic anticipation for a messiah. The Neolithic megaliths and the practices of Druidry, turn out to be yet more evidence of the true identity of the British and European peoples, as the Aryan tribes of Israel and the people of God’s covenant.

Further information in a Podcast here

More references can be found in Stonehenge and Druidism by E Raymond Capt

Sven Longshanks